Adiós ley emergencia económica ¿y ahora?

El director del Área de Economía del IAE Business School de la Universidad Austral, Eduardo Luis Fracchia, opina sobre el fin de la Ley de Emergencia Económica, tras 16 años de vigencia. “No se renovó la ley de emergencia económica y con esta decisión quedaron atrás las facultades delegadas al […]

El director del Área de Economía del IAE Business School de la Universidad Austral, Eduardo Luis Fracchia, opina sobre el fin de la Ley de Emergencia Económica, tras 16 años de vigencia.
Lic Eduardo Fracchia

“No se renovó la ley de emergencia económica y con esta decisión quedaron atrás las facultades delegadas al Ejecutivo. La `emergencia´ supuso delegar en el Ejecutivo una serie de facultades extraordinarias, como establecer el sistema que fija el tipo de cambio entre el peso y las divisas extranjeras, pautar retenciones a la exportación de hidrocarburos, fijar tarifas y renegociar los contratos de servicios públicos en manos de empresas privadas y regular los precios de la canasta básica. Se trata de una concepción del poder más afín con las políticas anteriores propias del kirchnerismo que con las actuales.

Según el art. 76 de la Constitución se prohíbe la delegación legislativa en el Poder Ejecutivo, salvo en materias determinadas de administración o de emergencia pública con plazo fijado para su ejercicio y dentro de las bases de la delegación que el Congreso establezca.

La literatura elaborada sobre leyes recientes de Emergencia Económica en México y América Latina es abundante. Una buena revisión de este tema la hace Gabriel Mario Santos Villarreal. A la figura se le conoce como “estado de excepción” y como mecanismo en caso de alguna “situación extraordinaria”, como por ejemplo: catástrofe natural, perturbación grave de orden interno, guerra exterior, guerra civil, invasión o crisis económico financiera.

En el caso argentino, el balance de potestades para la administración de los fondos tuvo momentos diferentes, pero con una nota distintiva en estos últimos años. A través de la Jefatura de Gabinete, el Gobierno nacional siempre encontró atajos para disponer de fondos sin requerir el aval del Congreso. Es lo que algunos estudiosos del derecho y legisladores bautizaron como “superpoderes”.

La no renovación de la ley de Emergencia Económica era uno de los reclamos reiterados de las empresas privatizadas ante el tribunal arbitral del Banco Mundial, el CIADI, el Fondo Monetario Internacional, que reclamaban la normalización de los contratos.

El ministro del Interior, Rogelio Frigerio, ya había adelantado la posibilidad de que se eliminara esta ley. La emergencia económica empezaba a tener cada vez menos sentido, con una economía que crecía por dos años de manera consecutiva.

Con esta decisión el Gobierno puede dar un mensaje político claro y optimista hacia los inversores: Argentina ya no enfrenta ninguna situación de emergencia y no se necesitan facultades excepcionales para afrontar los problemas.

Aquel cuadro crítico de finales de 2001 que inspiró el dictado de la ley a principios del siglo, fue uno de los principales argumentos esgrimidos por los abogados públicos que defendieron al país de los reclamos indemnizatorios que realizaron los accionistas de las concesionarias de servicios públicos. Estas firmas acudieron al arbitraje internacional para exigir un resarcimiento por el daño que les habría ocasionado la pesificación y desindexación de las tarifas.

No hay una interpretación unívoca acerca de que implica exactamente el fin de la emergencia en términos legales. Un especialista en temas presupuestarios especula que facilitará la firma de contratos con cláusulas de ajuste periódico, indexación que estaría inhibida por la norma en cuestión.

Cabe decir que la ley 25.561 habilitó la pesificación de las deudas contraídas en moneda dura y reformuló los contratos con las privatizadas prestadoras de servicio públicos, pesificando los precios y ordenando su renegociación. Al mismo tiempo, estableció un régimen de amparo a los consumidores. En definitiva, una serie de medidas fundadas en un estado de excepción.

La emergencia social, por otra parte, continuará vigente. Terminaron la energética y la económica. El Estado de excepción continuará vigente en materia social y sanitaria.

Otra cuestión de aquella legislación es la intervención pública en los precios del transporte y la energía a través de subsidios, que la gestión macrista prevé erradicar en el corto plazo. La contrapartida conocida es la suba de las tarifas.

Hay 266 resoluciones legales que involucran a la emergencia o fundadas en ella. Este conjunto fue cuidadosamente analizado por los abogados del Estado, quienes concluyeron que no hay nada que preservar. La no renovación de la ley no generará distorsiones.

La ley de Emergencia Económica no tenía incidencia sobre la resignación de partidas presupuestarias. La ley 25.561 otorgaba al PEN para tomar acciones en el cambio del régimen cambiario, sistema financiero y contratos de servicios públicos entre otras. Por lo tanto la derogación de esta ley no afecta la capacidad del PEN de reasignar partidas presupuestarias. La ley 26.124 (sancionada en 2006) es la que otorga al Ejecutivo la potestad para reasignar partidas.

Ningún país en el mundo se gobierna con este tipo de facultades discrecionales del Poder Ejecutivo. La decisión fortalece, en definitiva, la división de poderes y un sistema de balances y contrapesos que brinda señales de claridad en materia de políticas públicas. Se trata de una mejora institucional evidente y cuesta creer que se haya extendido tanto en el tiempo.

Por Eduardo Luis Fracchia – Director del Área de Economía del IAE Business School de la Universidad Austral.

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Adiós ley emergencia económica ¿y ahora?

tiempo de lectura: 4 min