Impuesto a las Ganancias: ¿cambió algo finalmente?

El nuevo Impuesto a las Ganancias es ley, tras un mes de pujas. Los cambios: suba del mínimo no imponible, aumento de las deducciones y actualización de escalas. Mínimo no imponible. Un trabajador soltero pasará a pagar Ganancias a partir de un salario bruto mensual de $ 27.941 (cerca de […]

El nuevo Impuesto a las Ganancias es ley, tras un mes de pujas. Los cambios: suba del mínimo no imponible, aumento de las deducciones y actualización de escalas.

  • Mínimo no imponible. Un trabajador soltero pasará a pagar Ganancias a partir de un salario bruto mensual de $ 27.941 (cerca de $ 23.000 pesos de bolsillo) y uno casado con dos hijos desde los $ 37.000 brutos ($ 30.000 netos).
  • Escalas. Se actualizan, luego de haber estado congeladas 17 años. Según el Instituto Argentino de Análisis Fiscal (IARAF), los cambios beneficiarán especialmente a “los trabajadores con salarios brutos de entre $ 30.000 y $ 37.000 en el caso de los casados con dos hijos y de $ 26.000 y $ 28.000 en el caso de los solteros, que ahora quedarán fuera del impuesto. El texto contempla la actualización anual automática de los parámetros, por lo que se evitará la pérdida constante frente a la inflación.
  • Jubilados. Estarán exentos de Ganancias si cobran menos de cinco jubilaciones mínimas, es decir alrededor de $ 30.000 brutos.
  • Aguinaldo. Se incluirá en la base imponible del impuesto que se computa de forma anual. Así, los descuentos se prorratean en doce meses y se evita un salto brusco en las retenciones del mes de su percepción.
  • Horas Extra. Quedarán exentas las que se generen en días no laborables y feriados.
  • Alquileres. Se podrá deducir el 40% de las sumas pagadas, con un tope de hasta $ 4.000 mensuales. Este beneficio será sólo para quienes no sean propietarios de un inmueble.
  • Viáticos. Quedarán exentos hasta el 40% de la ganancia no imponible, es decir unos $ 20.000 al año.
  • Hijos. Los casados podrán deducir al cónyuge (hasta $ 48.447 al año) e hijos de hasta 18 años (y no de hasta 24, como antes). Los montos a deducir suben un 21,5%.
  • Docentes. Podrán deducir un adicional por material didáctico de hasta el 40% de la ganancia no imponible.
  • Justicia. La Corte admite que los futuros jueces deberán pagar por Ganancias

Cómo se tapará el “agujero” fiscal

Respecto al costo fiscal, en el Frente Renovador calcularon que los cambios costarán $ 60.000 millones, mientras que en el oficialismo hay posturas divididas: algunos hablan de $ 48.000 millones y otros hasta de $ 134.000 millones.

Esta pérdida de ingresos se cubrirá, en parte,  gravando las actividades del juego y, por otro lado, con un impuesto extraordinario a las operaciones de dólar futuro de 2015, algo que seguramente será muy cuestionado judicialmente en 2017.

Se crearán nuevos impuestos para las apuestas online, del 7,5%, máquinas del juego, del 10%, y retenciones a las mineras.

El impacto concentrado sobre algunas provincias es llamativo. Buenos Aires perdería $ 9.860 millones; Santa Fe, $ 6.600 M; Córdoba, $ 6.400 M y Tucumán, $ 3.400 M. La caída de recaudación sería más importante en los distritos más pobres, donde Ganancias alcanza a menos habitantes. En Chaco sería $ 3.500 millones, Salta $ 2.900 M, y Misiones $ 2.400 M.

Igualmente las pérdidas que tendrán las provincias en sus recaudaciones -ya que Ganancias es coparticipable- las afrontará la Nación mediante giros automáticos de ATN (Aportes del Tesoro Nacional).

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Impuesto a las Ganancias: ¿cambió algo finalmente?

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