Grobocopatel: Nueva revolución en el agro

El potencial de aumento de la producción agrícola argentina es enorme, afirma el líder del grupo Los Grobo. A las ventajas naturales se une la perspectiva de una nueva “revolución verde” con la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías al campo. El Mercosur puede ser la nueva Inglaterra del siglo XVII, como […]

El potencial de aumento de la producción agrícola argentina es enorme, afirma el líder del grupo Los Grobo. A las ventajas naturales se une la perspectiva de una nueva “revolución verde” con la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías al campo. El Mercosur puede ser la nueva Inglaterra del siglo XVII, como punta de lanza de esta nueva revolución.

Gustavo Grobocopatel es el estandarte de la modernización del agro, de la adopción no solo de tecnología en la producción, sino de formas más sofisticadas de gerenciar el negocio del campo. Exponente más visible de una generación que vino a revolucionar el agro y que seguirá haciéndolo.
Descendiente de judíos ucranianos, transformó una mediana empresa agrícola familiar en un grupo –Los Grobo- que factura 700 millones de dólares anuales “y puede duplicar o triplicar esa cifra en pocos años”, según su afirmación.
Casado y divorciado, con tres hijos, su afición es correr y sobre todo cantar. Desde hace años integra un trío folklórico y más recientemente comenzó con el canto de cámara. En YouTube se puede encontrar su último concierto de canto de cámara en el Museo de Arte Moderno. “Alguien me preguntó si canto para desenchufarme –refiere- y le contesté: al contrario, canto para enchufarme”.
Habla de todos los temas, pero cuando le brilla la mirada es cuando se refiere al canto o a los progresos de la tecnología.

OTRO SALTO TECNOLOGICO

PE: ¿Cuál es el potencial de crecimiento del agro argentino?
– El potencial de aumento de la producción en el país es enorme. Distintas instituciones lo vienen marcando. Desde el mismo Gobierno en el PEA 2020, la Bolsa de Cereales, la Fundación Producir Conservando y en general todos tenemos una visión muy optimista al respecto.
Además de eso hay una revolución tecnológica en ciernes que va a cambiar la estructura del sistema productivo en el agro. Está basada en la incorporación de la biotecnología, la robótica, la nanotecnología, la agricultura de precisión.

Viene una convergencia tecnológica muy importante en el campo. Y si hacemos las cosas bien este salto nos va a encontrar en muy buena posición para aprovecharlo integralmente.

GROBOCOPATEL3-PE: Es raro pensar que la nanotecnología se va a usar en el agro….
– Hoy hay productos fitosanitarios que vienen encapsulados en nano partículas de liberación lenta, es algo que ya se está usando.

-PE: También se anuncian nuevos eventos con transgénicos…
– En el tema de transgénicos se va a ir por más. Ahora ya hay vida artificial. Ya no es cuestión de poner un gen de otro producto, sino de construir todo un ADN.

Podríamos decir que lo transgénico ya es medioeval. Se puede armar una planta, con trozos de ADN, como si fuera un Rasti, o sea crear un ser vivo hecho a medida de tus necesidades.

-PE: Parece ciencia ficción y además, da un poco de miedo…
– El mismo miedo que tenía la gente cuando decía que no podía volar un objeto que fuera más pesado que el aire. Sin embargo hoy todo el mundo viaja en avión.

-PE: ¿Esto no haría que se pueda producir cualquier cosa en cualquier lado, sin necesidad de tener las ventajas naturales como las nuestras?
– No, porque siempre se va a necesitar tener agua abundante y barata, superficies aptas para la agricultura, en ecosistemas que tengan bajos servicios ambientales y en países donde haya una cultura de producción agrícola. Se puede tener todos los medios, pero no la gente y entonces no ocurre. Donde hay esas condiciones es en Latinoamérica, esencialmente en el Mercosur.

GROBOCOPATEL2Por eso digo que América latina podría ser la Inglaterra del siglo XXVII, como punta de esta nueva revolución agrícola.

-PE: O sea que estamos a las puertas de una nueva revolución verde…
– Para mí en realidad es una nueva revolución industrial, porque las plantas se transforman en una especie de biorreactores, van a ser como fábricas.

Una planta va a producir medicinas, bioplásticos, alimentos, energía, enzimas, maderas para el papel o la vivienda, textiles para la ropa.

Una enorme cantidad de necesidades humanas podrían estar cubiertas por estas biorrefinerías, que usan la luz solar, que es barata y que no emiten dióxido de carbono, sino que lo absorben a través del proceso de fotosíntesis. O sea una revolución industrial, con el lenguaje y la dinámica de la vida.

-PE: ¿Puede trazarse un paralelo con las experiencias locales de vacas clonadas que producen medicamentos?
– Efectivamente, en ese caso la vaca es el biorreactor, que a través de una modificación genética expresa en la leche el medicamento buscado

PRODUCIR MÁS O MEJOR

– PE: ¿La solución para el país es producir más de lo mismo o producir mayor valor agregado?
– En la medida en que los países puedan tener una matriz productiva más diversificada, con cadenas de valor alargadas, eso es un gran avance porque da mas trabajo, con mayor valor agregado, permite defenderse mejor frente a los riesgos de la actividad. El problema es que uno no es autónomo para decidir, hay que tener quién te compre. A lo mejor uno dice quiero producir pollo, pero el mundo quiere soja. Ahí hay todo un trabajo de desarrollo de negocios, de exportaciones, de integraciones para poderlo hacer. Mientras tanto hay que seguir haciendo lo que se puede de la mejor manera.
En realidad, para superar el cuello de botella del sector externo, la solución no es solamente producir más industrializado, sino simplemente producir más. En lugar de 100 o 110 millones de toneladas, se podrían producir 150 o 200 millones.

-PE: Pero los precios internacionales han caído, la economía del principal comprador, China, está debilitándose…
– Eso no es una lectura muy objetiva de la realidad, son más bien sensaciones. Porque la realidad es que los precios internacionales cayeron, pero no tanto. Inclusive ahora volvieron a subir. Estamos en una franja de precios entre 350 y 400 dólares, mientras que en la época de De la Rúa estábamos entre 150 y 200. Tenemos más del doble de precios que había en la década de los 90. No estamos mal en ese sentido. El problema es que los costos se han ido para arriba y estos precios no aguantan la presión impositiva y las dificultades en el flujo de comercialización.

Ajustando estos problemas internos, tendríamos que estar produciendo un 50% más y eso implica entre 15.000 y 20.000 millones de dólares más por año.

Es más de la mitad de las actuales reservas del Banco Central. Es decir que con cosas relativamente simples arreglamos un problema muy grave rápidamente.

-PE: ¿No es prioritario incentivar las inversiones en la industrialización de la producción?
– Por supuesto que eso está muy bien, pero son procesos muy lentos. Abrir mercados significa un posicionamiento en el plano internacional, en el comercio, en el Mercosur, son cosas que llevan un poco más de tiempo. Pero en el corto plazo podríamos reaccionar rápidamente generando un shock exportador de commodities agrícolas, sin deteriorar el consumo interno ni ninguna de las políticas sociales que se implementaron.

-PE: ¿Para eso habría que modificar la política impositiva para el sector?
Hay impuestos que es absurdo que se cobren, Por ejemplo a productos que se exportan cada vez menos. Es querer tener una tajada más grande de algo que cada vez es más chico. Ahí lo que hay que hacer es tratar de tener una tajada más chica de algo que sea grande.

GROBOCOPATEL-PE: ¿Hay una tendencia a mayores restricciones a los transgénicos en Europa?
– No, cada vez hay menos restricciones. En los últimos veinte años -desde que se aprobaron los eventos transgénicos- siempre hubo mucho temor sobre si se iba a poder vender o no a Europa, sin embargo se vende cada vez más. Inclusive Europa produce transgénicos también internamente. Si hubiésemos seguido esas ideas de que no se podía producir plantas genéticamente modificadas, Argentina hoy sería un país mucho más pobre y no hubiéramos tenido ninguno de los beneficios sociales que hay hoy. Hay que pensar también qué hubiese pasado si hubiésemos tomado la decisión contraria. Y de alguna manera hacer un homenaje a aquellos que se jugaron por tomar decisiones valientes que crearon mucha riqueza y mucho valor para toda la sociedad.

 

 

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Grobocopatel: Nueva revolución en el agro

tiempo de lectura: 6 min