Cómo identificar información falsa

En días en que es crucial contar con información concreta y verídica, los mensajes virales llegan para confundir a las personas

Ante la gran cantidad de información que en estos días circula por diferentes plataformas, entre ellas las más conocidas de mensajería móvil instantánea, se detectaron innumerables mensajes con información falsa la cual confunde y preocupa a la población en un contexto de suma sensibilidad.

Por distintos motivos muchas personas, desde cuentas no identificadas, difunden información falsa que alimenta la desinformación, el desconocimiento y por temor o creyendo que están haciendo un favor, la gente lo comparte y lo convierte en viral.

Frente a este contexto de pandemia es muy importante contar y divulgar información certera y no difundir noticias falsas. El uso responsable de la tecnología esta, hoy más que nunca, en las manos de cada uno de los consumidores.

Es por esto que Claudio Caracciolo, Especialista en Ciberseguridad de ElevenPaths, la unidad de Ciberseguridad de Telefónica Movistar, acerca los consejos para identificar este tipo de mensajes:

  • Ambigüedad: Normalmente los mensajes no tienen una forma que permita ver con claridad su verdadera identificación, aunque parecería que sí. Por ejemplo, si menciona un hospital de niños, no dicen exactamente cual, ni en qué ciudad exactamente está ubicado. Solo dicen: El doctor “X” del Hospital de Niños en Argentina.
  • Falsa identificación: Con el fin de parecer citas textuales dichas por algún especialista y así hacer los datos más creíbles, suelen acudir al recurso de poner nombre y apellido al “especialista”. Utilizan nombres de médicos, ingenieros, abogados, u otras especialidades, pero que cuando uno los busca en Google o LinkedIn, no se relacionan con el establecimiento mencionado en el mismo mensaje, siguiendo el caso del hospital.
  • Datos “institucionales”: La mayoría de los mensajes, para parecer más creíbles nombran cifras o datos brindados por instituciones prestigiosas que lo avalen. Pero nunca ponen la referencia. Por ejemplo: “Según un estudio del MIT…” o “Según el último informe del Instituto Universitario de…”.
  • No hay referencias oficiales: Cuando nombran sitios u organismos oficiales, nunca dan el link exacto a donde se encuentra esa referencia. Por ejemplo, envían mensajes hablando sobre la cuarentena y las medidas económicas del Ministerio de Economía, pero no citan el Boletín Oficial.             Y si lo hacen, pasan dos cosas:

1) El link que proporcionan no funciona. Lo más frecuente.

2) El link lleva al Boletín Oficial pero no al documento que supuestamente anuncian, porque saben que mucha gente entra al link pero luego no busca ni lee para saber si es verdad.

  • Llegó de un familiar u amigo: La mayoría de las personas reenvían estos mensajes porque un conocido cercano se los paso a ellos. Esto hace que en la mente del que lo recibe pasen los siguientes pensamientos:

1)   Si me lo pasa un amigo/familiar que trabaja en “X” lugar, debe ser cierto.                                                    2)   Si me lo pasa un amigo/familiar, lo tengo que reenviar, sino quedo mal.                                                      3) ¿Y si no lo paso y era verdad?

El sentimiento de obligación de los puntos 2 y 3, es el truco más utilizado para estafar a las personas, jugar con la culpa o con “lo que los demás pensarían” es una herramienta sumamente habitual y lamentablemente efectiva. El caso del punto 1, sucede algo diferente. Uno confía en que la persona que se lo reenvío es idónea, pero lo que no tenemos en cuenta, es que esa persona quizás tampoco leyó en profundidad el mensaje y sólo lo reenvió porque otro amigo o profesional se los compartió. Y en este caso entraron en juego nuevamente los puntos 1 y 3.

Qué hacer

1) Es mejor desconfiar que reenviar un mensaje viral falso que puede generar paranoia a otras personas, más en estos tiempos. No es de mala persona desconfiar de las cadenas que se reciben, no compartiendo esta información falsa puede ayudar a evitar que información falsa se distribuya y que otras personas resulten dañadas por malos consejos.

2) Tomarse solo 2 minutos para verificar los mensajes. ¿Cómo? Tomando pequeñas porciones de esos textos, las partes más importantes del texto, y buscarlas en Google. De esta manera vamos a encontrar que algunos mensajes están dando vueltas desde hace meses, o incluso provienen de otros países. Por ejemplo, si el mensaje indica que un profesional de la salud afirmó algo, copiar y pegar ese dato en Google y corroborar los resultados. En caso de que se mencionen sitios oficiales, consultar en los sitios usando los buscadores para ver si realmente existe esa información.

3) Si se descubre que es un mensaje falso (fake), notificar a la persona que lo envió comentándole que es falso o una estafa, y pedirle a esta persona que haga lo mismo con la persona que se lo reenvió. De esta forma se haría la cadena inversa y no se sigue viralizando.

 

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Cómo identificar información falsa

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