¿La hora de los seguros digitales?

Mientras aumentan las inversiones en el sector, aparecen nuevas empresas que nacen con soluciones innovadoras. El mapa actual de la industria en Argentina y América Latina.

Por Martín Ferrari, cofounder y CEO de 123Seguro

El mercado asegurador vive una transformación a partir del surgimiento y crecimiento de las insurtech (acrónimo de Insurance & Technology), empresas de base tecnológica que ofrecen soluciones innovadoras como la contratación de pólizas de forma virtual con múltiples ventajas sobre las compañías más tradicionales del sector.

La industria, históricamente conservadora, se encamina a un cambio en la matriz de toda su cadena de valor. Apalancadas en el avance de la tecnología, las start-ups reformulan el modelo de negocios que caracteriza a las empresas en pos de la inclusión social, y proporcionan a una mayor parte de la población el acceso a servicios financieros, con amplia oferta de prestaciones que se adaptan mejor a las necesidades de los clientes.

El ecosistema se consolida en América latina y en la Argentina. En este país, hoy ya operan más de una docena de firmas y se espera que el número de empresas aumente en los próximos años. La mayor penetración de la telefonía móvil promueve la contratación de pólizas a través de esta modalidad (mobile insurance).

Y la tecnología no solo disminuye los costos asociados a la comercialización de seguros, sino también los gastos relacionados con el recaudo de primas, la entrega de certificados de aseguramiento, la recepción de reclamos, el pago de siniestros y el control del fraude. Todo esto hace que productos que antes resultaban prohibitivos para ciertos segmentos de la población hoy estén a su alcance.

CRECIMIENTO DEL SECTOR

Las insurtech crecen sostenidamente año tras año en la región, donde ya hay más 200 firmas. Esta disrupción se inició en economías desarrolladas como las de los Estados Unidos y de Europa, pero, desde hace un tiempo, se trasladó a otras regiones en vías de desarrollo como América latina, con el surgimiento de más players.

La Argentina se posiciona como uno de los mercados más influyentes. El país aparece en el tercer puesto con el mayor número de compañías de este tipo (11, por el momento), mientras que el Brasil lidera el ranking, con 77 empresas, seguido por México, con 42, de acuerdo con el estudio “Insurtech en América latina: próxima frontera de la industria de seguros”, desarrollado por 123Seguro.

Entre los productos que más eligen los clientes de estas empresas, se encuentran los seguros automotores (60%), las pólizas de vida (20%) y otras coberturas contra accidentes personales (20%). Asimismo, en términos anuales, un 60% de los consumidores contrata seguros con un rango de precios de entre $ 10.000 y $ 25.000, mientras que el 40% restante se inclina por pólizas con un valor inferior a $ 10.000.

Desde 2016, las insurtech en la región levantaron u$s 125.000 millones de inversión provenientes de fondos de venture capital. De hecho, en 2018, crecieron un 50% las start-ups del sector con base, principalmente, en la Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú, según el estudio Fintech Radar que elaboró Finnovista. El último caso relevante es la creación de un fondo en Chile, cuyas inversiones estarán destinadas en un 70% a insurtechs.

A nivel global, el volumen de financiamiento pasó de u$s 131 millones en 2011 a u$s 120.000 millones en 2018, según Finnovista. Mientras que, a comienzos de la década, había solo 50 inversores en el ámbito, actualmente son más de 400 los que apuestan por él, como Softbank, Google, Amazon y Alibaba, entre otros tantos.

Además, en la región, grandes jugadores tecnológicos como Mercado Libre y Rappi ya anunciaron que se sumarán al segmento. Si se toma en cuenta que para 2025 se espera que cerca de 79% de la población latinoamericana cuente al menos con un smartphone, según un estudio de Mobile Economy 2019, sumado a la baja penetración del sector financiero en general y de la vertical del seguro en particular, las insurtech tienen una oportunidad para alcanzar a una población que no está cubierta.

BENEFICIOS Y DIFERENCIALES

Las insurtech se destacan por su capacidad de innovación y marcan el pulso de la industria. ¿Cuáles son los beneficios de operar con estas empresas? A diferencia de las compañías clásicas del sector —que suelen ser burocráticas al exigir papeleo, certificaciones y trámites para la contratación de una cobertura—, las insurtech concentran sus operaciones en plataformas digitales que permiten comparar y contratar una variada cartera de seguros de forma remota, desde la comodidad de un dispositivo móvil, en menor tiempo y con una mejor experiencia de usuario.

Pero además, con la tecnología como aliada, el segmento comenzó a explorar otros nichos y encontró una oportunidad que las compañías clásicas están desaprovechando: la creación de productos alternativos a los típicos seguros, destinados a estratos de la población que suelen quedar excluidos del sistema formal de protección social.

Esto es relevante si se tiene en cuenta que solo el 50 % de la población local se encuentra bancarizada, es decir, posee una cuenta bancaria. La otra mitad, por ende, no consume ningún servicio financiero (tampoco seguros). Según la Asociación de Bancos Argentinos (Adeba), el segmento bancarizado representa el 15 % del PBI. En comparación con otras economías regionales, como Chile y el Brasil, la Argentina se halla por detrás, ya que en estos países los porcentajes trepan al 74 % y el 70 %, respectivamente.

En el mercado de seguros nacional, se observa una situación similar. El índice de penetración tiene una participación de apenas un 3,2 % del PBI, lo cual posiciona al país en el quinto lugar de la región. Por ejemplo, el mercado chileno es un 50 % más grande que el argentino y acapara el 4,5 % del PBI de ese país.

En este contexto, las personas de menor poder adquisitivo son las que menos seguros contratan y, por este motivo, les cuesta más recomponerse luego de una eventualidad que los perjudique (desde abolladuras por granizo en un auto hasta el fallecimiento de familiar). En cambio, quienes más recursos tienen suelen ser los que más pólizas contratan y, a la vez, quienes pueden reponerse más fácilmente tras un imprevisto incluso sin ellas, dado que cuentan con una mayor espalda para hacerle frente a la situación.


SERVICIO PERSONALIZADO

Las insurtech ofrecen coberturas personalizadas que dinamizan el sector, tal como sucede con la industria bancaria. Por ejemplo, se destacan los microseguros, orientados a personas de bajos ingresos, particularmente trabajadores de la economía informal y sus familias. Los seguros de pago por uso también están creciendo, así como los productos para los jubilados del futuro, con hincapié en planes de previsión y en planes de ahorro, y las pólizas customizables en función de patrones de conducta del asegurado mediante Inteligencia Artificial.


CASO DE ÉXITO

En este sentido, 123Seguro, por ejemplo, brinda una solución integral de seguros y respalda a sus clientes desde la asesoría para la contratación hasta cualquier tipo de gestión, incluyendo siniestros. A pesar de estar concentrados en automóviles, ofrece otros servicios como hogar, accidentes personales o tecnología.

Ha sido reconocida por Google como caso de éxito por la simplificación de procesos y la reducción del tiempo y de costos a la hora de contratar un seguro, siendo la única fintech en haber recibido esta distinción.

INNOVAR O PERECER

Frente a esta situación, muchas aseguradoras tradicionales están camino a reinventarse ante la irrupción de las empresas digitales. Según el World InsurTech Report 2018, un estudio que recoge datos de 33 mercados diferentes, “las insurtech son un catalizador que redefinen la experiencia del cliente, ofreciendo eficiencia y creando nuevos modelos de negocio”. Al respecto, el informe revela que el 96 % de las aseguradoras históricas de la industria piensa en colaborar con estas compañías incipientes. Un 78 % de ellas busca hacerlo para desarrollar en conjunto una `nueva solución´.

El principal desafío está en lograr una mayor cobertura, a través de productos innovadores diseñados para resolver las necesidades de los usuarios —especialmente de la población que más dificultades presenta para contratar un seguro—, mientras se consolida la cultura de la prevención, que todavía se encuentra en un estadio temprano. En suma, las insurtech se han convertido en un elemento clave para la inclusión.

Prensa Económica

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¿La hora de los seguros digitales?

tiempo de lectura: 6 min