INFORME: ¿Empleos en jaque? Trabajos que harán los robots

Las industrias encuentran en la robótica un aliado para optimizar costos. En el reciente Foro de Davos se aseguró que esta será la Cuarta Revolución Industrial. ¿Será el fin de los trabajos rutinarios y el auge de nuevos puestos creativos aún inexistentes? Muchas novelas y películas futuristas lo anunciaron. Clásicos […]

Las industrias encuentran en la robótica un aliado para optimizar costos. En el reciente Foro de Davos se aseguró que esta será la Cuarta Revolución Industrial. ¿Será el fin de los trabajos rutinarios y el auge de nuevos puestos creativos aún inexistentes?

Muchas novelas y películas futuristas lo anunciaron. Clásicos literarios como El Gólem o Frankestein nos hicieron temer a nuestras propias invenciones  En 2017 el temor parece hacerse realidad. La tendencia indica que las tareas rutinarias y repetitivas vinculadas al conocimiento, serán prontamente realizados por máquinas, mientras que aquellos empleos que requieren de la empatía y la creatividad serán los que sigan desarrollando los seres humanos.

¿Serán  los seres humanos “despedidos” por eficientes robots sin ningún tipo de emoción, para mejorar la productividad? No será tan dramático, pero parte de esto es cierto. El reemplazo no será total, sino que la robótica se centrará en tareas repetitivas y automatizables, y sólo en algunas ramas que requieran algún tipo de aprendizaje cognitivo, generando, a su vez, nuevas oportunidades y empleos que requieran habilidades y capacidades diferentes de las tradicionales.

Esta situación lleva a la inevitable pregunta ¿está mi trabajo en la lista de aquellos susceptibles de realizarse con robots? Este impacto muy probablemente se realice no sólo sobre trabajos de fábrica y producción en serie, sino también sobre los trabajos vinculados con el conocimiento que impliquen tareas rutinarias y repetitivas. Esta es la nueva “oleada” de empleo susceptible de transformarse gracias a la robótica en los próximos años.  Dos ejemplos:

1º) Abogados y Contadores: Conocida comúnmente como “trabajos de cuello blanco”, algunas de las tareas realizadas por abogados y contadores podrían ser reemplazadas. “Hoy en día para buscar y detectar fraude, es más probable que lo encuentre más eficientemente un robot de software porque pueden procesar grandes volúmenes de información gracias a la inteligencia cognitiva, y están entrenados para buscar anomalías, algo raro que esté fuera de los patrones habituales o regulares”, señala Gustavo Guaragna, CEO de Snoop Consulting, empresa de software especializada en el desarrollo de bots. Es que estos nuevos robots trabajadores no tienen formas humanoides, ni siquiera  brazos; pero sí están dotados de voz y pueden ver y oír.

2º) Chofer de camiones y conductor de taxis: No solo debido a una reconfiguración de los hábitos y la irrupción de la economía colaborativa (Uber), sino gracias a la aparición de transportes autónomos. Es sensato vislumbrar un futuro con menos vehículos y con muchos menos conductores aún.

Para Guaragna, “lo que tenemos que empezar a ver o a imaginar son qué cosas hacemos mucho mejor los seres humanos que los robots”.  Mark Zuckerberg, el CEO de Facebook, está automatizando su casa e hizo un “casting de voces humanas”, donde la voz elegida fue la del actor Morgan Freeman. Eso es un tipo de empleo nuevo que se crea: poner voces, calidez y empatía a estas tareas automatizadas. “Así como se puede destruir una cantidad de empleo, se crean otros empleos diferentes, todo eso justamente tiene que ver con la creatividad, con el ‘brillo’ de la creación que solo puede agregar lo humano”, sostiene el CEO de Snoop Consulting.

El plus creativo que tenga cada persona será la mejor herramienta para defenderse de la embestida robótica. Guaragna explica: “Hoy más que nunca la importancia no depende exclusivamente de lo que hacés, sino de cómo lo hacés”. 

robots 1- prensa economica

EL REEMPLAZO POR ROBOTS CRECE, PERO LAS PERSONAS SON INDISPENSABLES

Por Gillian Tett

Si bien las máquinas eliminaron 5,6 millones puestos de trabajo en Estados Unidos en 10 años, las personas comenzaron a trabajar en nuevos roles. Los antropólogos hurgaron en bases de la fuerza laboral de EEUU en busca de una respuesta a una de las grandes preguntas de estos tiempos: ¿Qué pasa con la mano de obra humana cuando llegan los robots?. Las tecnologías digitales están haciendo muchas tareas que alguna vez hicieron los humanos. Esto da miedo. Sin embargo, hay un giro intrigante. Los antropólogos observaron la vida cotidiana de las empresas y descubrieron una historia más compleja: las máquinas están eliminando algunos puestos de trabajo, pero las personas también están trabajando con robots en nuevos roles. En un análisis de base, se dió cuenta de que las empresas con sistemas informáticos complejos crecen muy rápido, por lo que que cada vez hacen falta más seres humanos “no robots” para monitorear, gestionar e interpretar datos.

La Asociación Antropólogica de EEUU, remarcó que estas empresas están creando nuevos tipos de puestos de trabajos, reinventando así el panorama laboral del S. XXI.

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INFORME: ¿Empleos en jaque? Trabajos que harán los robots

tiempo de lectura: 3 min