Argentina, entre los 50 países más innovadores del mundo

Un estudio realizado por la agencia Bloomberg entre más de 200 naciones arrojó cuáles son las más avanzadas en materia de investigación y desarrollo. Estados Unidos, Corea del Sur y Alemania ocupan el podio, mientras que nuestro país aparece en el puesto 45. Las razones por las que fue elegido […]

Un estudio realizado por la agencia Bloomberg entre más de 200 naciones arrojó cuáles son las más avanzadas en materia de investigación y desarrollo. Estados Unidos, Corea del Sur y Alemania ocupan el podio, mientras que nuestro país aparece en el puesto 45. Las razones por las que fue elegido y la realidad a contramano de otros indicadores globales.

El último ranking global elaborado por la agencia Bloomberg, posicionó a Argentina en el puesto número 45 entre los 50 países más innovadores.

La ubicación que, a priori, puede parecer poco alentadora, en verdad es un logro, ya que es el único país de América latina que figura en el estudio.

A la hora de analizar la innovación, el informe tuvo en cuenta siete aspectos clave: intensidad de I+D (Investigación y desarrollo como porcentaje del PBI); productividad (PBI por persona empleada y por hora trabajada); densidad de alta tecnología (compañías públicas de alta tecnología como un porcentaje de las empresas que cotizan en la bolsa); concentración de investigación (número de investigadores de I+D por cada millón de personas); capacidad manufacturera (valor agregado de la manufactura como un porcentaje del PBI); eficiencia terciaria (tasa de matriculación en todas las materias para estudiantes post-secundarios y tasa de estudiantes terciarios que se graduaron y que se especializaron en ciencias); y actividad de patentes (solicitudes de patentes presentadas por residentes por millón de habitantes y por cada u$s 1.000.000 invertido en I+D).

Así, entre 200 países sondeados, el estudio seleccionó a 96 países, aunque sólo dio a conocer a los 50 mejores. Allí logró acceder Argentina.

El resultado final arrojó que, en I+D, Argentina se ubicó en el puesto 53; en productividad en el 40; en concentración de investigación, en el 43; en capacidad manufacturera en el 13; en eficiencia terciaria en el 55; y en actividad de patentes en el puesto 57.

Mientras tanto, en cuanto a la variable “densidad de alta tecnología”, no se registraron resultados. De la comparación con los otros países sondeados resultó la posición obtenida por el país.

A nivel global, el mejor rankeado fue Estados Unidos que, en I+D, se ubicó en el puesto 9; en productividad en el 3° lugar; en concentración de investigación en el 10°; en capacidad manufacturera en el 52°; en eficiencia terciaria en el 26°; y en actividad de patentes en el 6°. En cuanto a la categoría “densidad de alta tecnología”, obtuvo el primer lugar.

El podio de los más innovadores lo completan Corea del Sur, en segundo lugar, y Alemania, en el tercero. En el top ten los siguieron Finlandia, Suecia, Japón, Singapur, Austria, Dinamarca, y Francia. Mientras tanto, la cola de la tabla fue ocupada por Sudáfrica (50), Bielorrusia (49) y Macedonia (48). La Argentina, en el puesto 45, se ubicó entre Rumania (46), Letonia (44), y Bulgaria (43).

Para la ONU, la región está mejor

De todas formas, por más que los países latinos no digan presente en el estudio de Bloomberg, el Ranking Global de Innovación 2014, realizado por la Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual de la ONU, sí dio cuenta de la presencia de estados de América latina, incluso mejor posicionados que la Argentina.

Este informe, que evaluó a 141 países, incluyó a los vecinos de América del Sur. Así, Chile se ubicó en el puesto 39, Brasil en el 59, Colombia en el 65, Uruguay en el 67 y la Argentina en el 70. Por detrás asomaron otros como Perú (75), Guyana (77) y México (79).

La región, según el informe, contó con países en baja, ya que Costa Rica, por ejemplo, pasó del puesto 45 al 60; Venezuela descendió hasta la 118° posición; y la Argentina pasó del lugar 58 al 70, para ubicarse entre Armenia (69) y Georgia (71).

 

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Argentina, entre los 50 países más innovadores del mundo

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