Rebelde con causa

Leonora Elena Poniatowska Seix Barral Una obra que relata y retrata una vida apasionante de una mujer valiente y rebelde del siglo pasado, la pintora mexicana de origen inglés Leonora Carrington (1917-2011). Lo que atrapa de la obra es que suma a la dimensión literaria de aquello que narra, una […]

Leonora

Leonora Elena Poniatowska Seix Barral Una obra que relata y retrata una vida apasionante de una mujer valiente y rebelde del siglo pasado, la pintora mexicana de origen inglés Leonora Carrington (1917-2011). Lo que atrapa de la obra es que suma a la dimensión literaria de aquello que narra, una faceta documental que ilustra no sólo un cierto periodo de tiempo y una realidad social (o varias: inglesa, francesa, española y mexicana), sino todo un movimiento artístico – el surrealismo, del cual ella fue una de las mejores exponentes pictóricas. Resulta casi imposible no interrumpir la lectura cada tanto para buscar las obras que se citan y complementar así la lectura no ya con un cierto aprendizaje, sino con algo más de lo que disfrutar. Carrington, que falleció en 2011 a los 94 años, será recordada por una obra que recrea mundos oníricos y fantásticos, pero también por un temperamento en perpetua rebelión y una vida itinerante que la depositó en distintas ciudades europeas, hasta su destino final en México. Los puntos salientes de ese derrotero son recuperados por Poniatowska en una obra que, tan lejos de la crítica de arte como de la biografía canónica, se basa en entrevistas que la autora de “Tinísima” mantuvo con la artista a lo largo de los 50 años que sellaron la amistad que las unió. “Leonora era un personaje delirante, maravilloso”, “un poema que camina, que sonríe, que de repente abre una sombrilla que se convierte en un pájaro que se convierte después en pescado y desaparece”, la definió alguna vez el Premio Nobel mexicano Octavio Paz. Poniatowska conoció a la pintora en los años cincuenta, cuando hacía entrevistas para el periódico Novedades y participó de su círculo de amistades, entre las que destacaba la pintora Remedios Varo, el muralista mexicano Diego Rivera y la artista Frida Kahlo. “Pocas personas saben de la impresionante lucha antifascista de Leonora contra el régimen de Hitler, o de su actitud en favor de los judíos. Tenía una gran conciencia social, de lo que significa la muerte, la guerra, las armas”, evocó la escritora tras obtener con esta obra el Premio Biblioteca Breve 2011 de la editorial Seix Barral. RECORRIDO En “Leonora”, editada por Seix Barral, la escritora imagina la ajetreada adolescencia de Carrington -“que pasó por varias escuelas regenteadas por religiosas pero no encajó en ninguna de ellas por su espíritu inconformista”- y recrea cómo a los 17 años se enamoró de Marx Ernst y se fugó con él a París. Allí, según recorre la novela a partir de datos verídicos, convivió con Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Marcel Duchamp y André Breton, hasta que

con el comienzo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial decidió abandonar París. En esos años se concentra acaso su mayor sufrimiento: la artista acaba enloqueciendo cuando Ernst -que era alemán- es deportado a un campo de concentración y ella termina confinada en un manicomio, del que logra escapar y llegar a Nueva York, a través de Madrid y Lisboa. “Leonora Carrington fue un ser muy solitario, que vivió en el miedo que significa estar internada en un centro psiquiátrico y esa soledad se acrecentó al llegar sola a un país, sin hablar su idioma y sabiendo que tenía que vivir de su pintura, pues su padre la había desheredado”, evocó Poniatowska. La autora de “La noche de Tlatelolco”, nacida en París en 1932 como hija del heredero la corona polaca, vivió en la capital francesa hasta los nueve años y al estallar la Segunda Guerra Mundial se trasladó con su familia a México. Se inició en el mundo de las letras como periodista y en los años 90 empezó a ser distinguida por sus obras literarias. Entre muchos otros, en 2001 recibió el premio Alfagura de novela por “La piel del cielo” y, seis años más tarde, se alzó con el Rómulo Gallegos por “El tren pasa primero”. La escritora ha dedicado parte de su obra a documentar las vidas de mujeres que han dejado una marca profunda en la vida cultural mexicana, como lo hiciera con la fotógrafa italiana Tina Modotti y la activista Gaby Brimmer. Esta es una obra -finalmente- muy bien escrita y no sólo muy bien sino de una forma muy personal. Está escrita en tercera persona y en presente, y en la narración se intercalan numerosísimos diálogos y ambas cosas, aportan su singularidad al texto: la narración en tercera persona esa cierta distancia que el análisis periodístico precisa y los diálogos la intimidad y la distancia corta que necesita la literatura. La extraordinaria elegancia narrativa que despliega Elena Poniatowska, salvando las distancias, recuerdan a Marguerite Yourcenar. Detalles como el sentido del humor de la protagonista, o la riqueza del castellano de México, hacen de la lectura de esta novela una experiencia inolvidable.  

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Rebelde con causa

tiempo de lectura: 3 min