Qué es y cómo impactará Blockchain

Esta tecnología disruptiva, se popularizó con las criptomonedas y forzó a la banca a estudiar su empleo. Otros sectores, como el comercio, logística, finanzas y el sector público también están experimentando con blockchain. En América Latina, Argentina, México y Chile son algunos de los países que primero han realizado algunas […]

Esta tecnología disruptiva, se popularizó con las criptomonedas y forzó a la banca a estudiar su empleo. Otros sectores, como el comercio, logística, finanzas y el sector público también están experimentando con blockchain.

En América Latina, Argentina, México y Chile son algunos de los países que primero han realizado algunas pruebas. Pero sin dudas el primer paso fue en 2017, “el año del bitcoin”, que generó expectativas sobre los posibles beneficios que podría traer la tecnología blockchain a otras áreas como  transporte, gobierno, logística o comercio.

Surgida en 2008, mediante un paper académico de Satoshi Nakamoto, blockchain es la tecnología, o confluencia de tecnologías, detrás de bitcoin y otras criptomonedas. Se trata de un sistema para transferencias de valor sin necesidad de un intermediario, como un gran libro contable distribuido en una red de pares (P2P), que incorpora criptografía, un sistema de gobernanza, leyes de validación y un mecanismo de consenso”, explicó Lucas Jolías, director de Prince Consulting, luego de un seminario web organizado por 5G Americas.

⇒ Según el experto, “blockchain” propone un nuevo modelo de Internet distribuido, alejado del modelo cliente-servidor. Al posibilitar la creación de bienes digitales únicos, que no pueden ser replicados, esta tecnología está dando paso a lo que algunos autores llaman “Internet del valor”.

Para José Otero, director de 5G Americas para América Latina y el Caribe, “Tecnologías como blockchain e Internet de las Cosas (IoT) necesitarán de una plataforma tecnológica lo suficientemente robusta, que permita transportar toda esa gran masa de tráfico que vamos a tener en el futuro. En el corto plazo, esta plataforma tecnológica en la parte inalámbrica será 5G; para que esto pueda suceder necesitamos espectro radioeléctrico”.

Otero remarca que “En zonas densamente pobladas, 1960 MHz son necesarios para las primeras cuatro generaciones móviles. Para 5G, se espera que hagan falta entre 3,3 a 18 GHz al espectro que tienen los operadores. Es un gran desafío para América Latina y el Caribe”.

Más allá de las criptomonedas

Una de las características de blockchain es que permite atribuir, mediante un sistema descentralizado, la propiedad exclusiva de un bien digital. De acuerdo con Lucas Jolías, algunas de las nuevas aplicaciones son la función de notariado digital, es decir, la certificación de información, con la certeza de que permanecerá inalterable en el tiempo. “Algunos Estados en América Latina lo están empezando a emplear como mecanismo para certificar determinados procesos, documentos o información pública, como, por ejemplo, el portal de compras públicas de Chile. Esta es la primera capa, o la punta del iceberg, de blockchain”, precisó.

Según el experto, “La segunda gran aplicación es la tokenización, o la posibilidad de convertir bienes digitales en bienes únicos. Algunos países están comenzando a experimentar con su empleo para títulos de propiedad de tierras o automóviles. También se están haciendo pruebas para utilización de blockchain en sistemas de generación de energía distribuida, por ejemplo, en Brooklyn, Nueva York; y en logística, para trazabilidad de diamantes, y para la trazabilidad y certificación en la manipulación de carnes porcinas. En Argentina, incluso, la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (provincia de Buenos Aires) realizó una prueba piloto de para la entrega de subsidios certificados en blockchain. Y también en Argentina, el boletín oficial está certificando con blockchain como notariado digital”.

En opinión de Jolías, “Blockchain es una tecnología al menos disruptiva, que obliga a determinadas instituciones a pensar su servicio, y el mundo de la banca lo ha demostrado. Más allá del impacto que pueda tener, lo que está claro es que los bancos están interesados en esta nueva tecnología y en cómo bajar sus costos de transacción y brindar mejores servicios. Puede ser también una tecnología disruptiva para otros sectores del comercio, la economía o el Estado. Argentina, México y Chile son algunos de los países que se han animado primero a realizar algunas pruebas con esta tecnología. Son países, sobre todo Argentina y México, que tienen un ecosistema muy fuerte de criptomonedas”.

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Qué es y cómo impactará Blockchain

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