Panamá mantiene inversión extranjera

El país canalero captó US$ 4.719 millones en 2014. Según un informe de la CEPAL, los países de América Latina vieron reducirse 16 % las inversiones en 2014 , alcanzando en total US$ 158.803 millones. En 2015 bajarían aún más. Por Alma Solís (ANPanamá). Panamá se quedó con el 45% […]

El país canalero captó US$ 4.719 millones en 2014. Según un informe de la CEPAL, los países de América Latina vieron reducirse 16 % las inversiones en 2014 , alcanzando en total US$ 158.803 millones. En 2015 bajarían aún más.

Por Alma Solís (ANPanamá).

Panamá se quedó con el 45% de la Inversión Extranjera Directa (IED) de Centroamérica de acuerdo con el informe publicado este miércoles por la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (Cepal).
El país captó US$ 4.719 millones en 2014 aumentando 1%, mientras que la región centroamericana recibió US$ 10.480 millones (un 2% menos). Sin embargo, Panamá también fue el de menor crecimiento porcentual.
El segundo puesto regional es de Costa Rica con US$ 2.106 millones, aunque este fue el único país en Centroamérica que decreció (21%). En tercer lugar quedó Guatemala con US$ 1.396 millones y cuarto Honduras con US$ 1.144 millones.

Menor inversión en América Latina

Al ampliar el panorama el informe de Cepal señala que flujos de inversión extranjera directa (IED) hacia América Latina y el Caribe se redujeron 16 % en 2014 hasta alcanzar los US$ 158.803 millones.
Este resultado revierte la tendencia de crecimiento observada en la última década -solo con caídas en 2006 y 2009-, ya que se proyecta una nueva baja para este año” señala el documento.
La explicación de esta baja es que las entradas de IED se vieron afectadas por la desaceleración económica de la región y los menores precios de los productos básicos de exportación. Entre 2003 y 2013, estas corrientes pasaron de US$ 46.937 millones de dólares a un récord de US$ 189.951 millones.

Buscar mejores, no mayores inversiones

En el mundo, la IED cayó 7 % en 2014 con respecto al año anterior, aunque las entradas a los países en desarrollo aumentaron 5 %, principalmente gracias al desempeño de Asia. La participación de América Latina y el Caribe en estos flujos mundiales alcanzó 13 %, indica el documento.
Para la CEPAL, las políticas de los países de América Latina y el Caribe no deberían orientarse a recuperar los montos de inversión extranjera directa alcanzados en la última década, sino a atraer aquella IED que contribuya a la diversificación productiva”, planteó la Secretaria Ejecutiva del organismo regional, Alicia Bárcena. “Esto significa articular la IED con políticas industriales y estrategias nacionales de desarrollo basadas en la igualdad y la sostenibilidad ambiental”, enfatizó.

Brasil continúa siendo el mayor receptor de inversión extranjera directa en América Latina y el Caribe. La CEPAL consigna en su informe dos cifras de IED para Brasil en 2014, debido a la actualización de la metodología en el país. Para efectos comparativos tanto a nivel nacional como regional, el organismo usó las cifras obtenidas con la metodología utilizada hasta el año pasado, que estima en US$ 62.495 millones la IED recibida por el país en 2014 (lo que da un total regional de US$ 158.803 millones). Si se toma en cuenta la nueva medición nacional, la cifra de IED en 2014 para Brasil aumenta a US$ 96.851 millones, lo que elevaría el monto regional a US$ 192.933 millones.

Como segundo receptor, después de Brasil, se ubica México, con entradas por US$ 22.795 millones, 49% menos que en 2013. Esta caída se explica por una operación extraodinaria producida en 2013 (la compra de la cervecera Modelo por US$ 13.249 millones) y la desinversión de AT&T en 2014 por US$ 5.570 millones.

Los flujos hacia Chile alcanzaron los US$ 22.002 millones, monto mayor al recibido en 2013 pero menor al récord de 2012, mientras que Colombia recibió US$ 16.054 millones (manteniéndose estable) y Perú US$ 7.607 millones (18% menos que en 2013). Por subregiones, la IED dirigida a Sudamérica y México disminuyó significativamente en 2014, en cambio los flujos hacia América Central y el Caribe tuvieron una caída mucho menor.

La rentabilidad media (renta de IED dividida por el acumulado de IED) de las empresas transnacionales en la región descendió a 5 % en 2014, mientras que las utilidades totales reportadas por estas empresas cayeron 16 %, totalizando US$ 103.877 millones, un monto considerado igualmente alto. Al igual que el año pasado, el informe advierte que estas utilidades representan un flujo negativo importante que repercute en el déficit en cuenta corriente de la región.

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Panamá mantiene inversión extranjera

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