Los jóvenes ‘ni estudio-ni trabajo’ ya ni buscan empleo

Según la OCDE cerca de 20 millones de “ni-nis” -jóvenes que no pueden estudiar en la Universidad, ni trabajar- pueden haber salido ya del sistema educacional, social y laboral de sus países al no buscar empleo, advierte el último informe de este organismo. La cifra, según el informe Skills Outlook […]

Según la OCDE cerca de 20 millones de “ni-nis” -jóvenes que no pueden estudiar en la Universidad, ni trabajar- pueden haber salido ya del sistema educacional, social y laboral de sus países al no buscar empleo, advierte el último informe de este organismo.

La cifra, según el informe Skills Outlook 2015, supone casi la mitad de los 39 millones de ninis de entre 16 y 29 años que se contabilizaban en los 34 estados de la OCDE en 2013, cinco millones más que antes de la crisis de 2008, y los pronósticos para 2014 no reflejan una significativa mejora de la situación.

La OCDE advierte de que la situación es especialmente preocupante en los países del sur de Europa, como en España y Grecia, donde más del 25 % de los jóvenes adultos en 2013 podían ser considerados ninis. Esta condición constituye no sólo una “desgracia personal”, sino una “inversión desperdiciada”, porque las habilidades adquiridas durante su educación no se aplican de forma productiva y suponen una “potencial carga” para sus países, subraya el documento.

“Desaprovechamiento potencial humano”

Una de las razones de este “desaprovechamiento de potencial humano” es que “demasiados jóvenes concluyen su educación sin haber adquirido las habilidades necesarias y tienen así dificultad para encontrar trabajo“. Según el Programa Internacional para la Evaluación de las Competencias de los Adultos (PIAAC, por sus siglas en inglés) de la OCDE, el 10% de los nuevos graduados son competentes sólo en los niveles más bajos de “manejo del lenguaje” y el 14 % del “cálculo numérico”. Este falta de competencia asciende a más del 40% en aquellas personas que abandonan la escuela antes de finalizar la educación secundaria.

De media, más del 8 % de los jóvenes de entre 16 y 24 años ha dejado la escuela antes de concluir la secundaria superior. Una vez dentro del mercado laboral, uno de cada cuatro jóvenes tiene un contrato temporal, lo que se traduce en una tendencia a un menor uso de sus habilidades y en oportunidades más reducidas de capacitación que sus colegas con una relación laboral indefinida.

Mientras, el 13 % de los jóvenes empleados están sobrecalificados para sus empleos, lo que supone que algunas de sus habilidades están siendo desaprovechadas. Según el informe, es poco probable que la situación cambie sustancialmente en los próximos años dado el lento crecimiento que se prevé para muchos de los países, sobre todo, los europeos.

Medidas a llevar a cabo

Entre otras medidas, la OCDE llama a garantizar que todos los jóvenes finalicen la escuela con un amplio abanico de habilidades cognitivas, sociales y emocionales, y a ayudarles a ingresar en el mercado laboral. Asimismo, es importante “desmantelar las barreras institucionales al empleo juvenil” y asegurar que los primeros contratos temporales representan un paso más hacia una ocupación estable.

Además, la OCDE llama a identificar y ayudar a aquellos “ni-nis” fuera del sistema a reinsertarse. El informe destaca asimismo la necesidad de anticiparse para aprender y adoptar las habilidades que necesita el mercado laboral y garantizar que se desarrollan en el sistema educacional y de formación profesional.

 

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Los jóvenes ‘ni estudio-ni trabajo’ ya ni buscan empleo

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