Cuál es el mejor barrio para vivir en Buenos Aires?

Un estudio hecho en la ciudad revela una peculiar forma de elegir nuestro lugar para vivir. ¿Por qué son tan apreciados los barrios más caros y no los de mejor calidad de vida?. La respuesta corrobora una teoría reciente ganadora del Nobel. Por Martín Tetaz – Economista. @martintetaz En el […]

Un estudio hecho en la ciudad revela una peculiar forma de elegir nuestro lugar para vivir. ¿Por qué son tan apreciados los barrios más caros y no los de mejor calidad de vida?. La respuesta corrobora una teoría reciente ganadora del Nobel.

Por Martín Tetaz – Economista. @martintetaz

En el libro The Quality of Life in Latin American Cities, publicado por el BID, se editó un artículo del CEDLAS (UNLP) que mide la calidad de vida en 48 barrios porteños que llegó a la conclusión de que los mejores barrios son Colegiales, San Nicolás y Villa Ortúzar.

¿Es que la gente es estúpida y no se da cuenta de que se vive mejor en barrios más baratos? ¿O será que lo que los investigadores creen que determina una buena calidad de vida no es lo que valoran los vecinos a la hora de comprar una propiedad?

Dirigido por Guillermo Cruces, el estudio de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata tiene dos partes. En la primera, se comparan todos los barrios a partir de un conjunto de indicadores objetivos que miden la distancia promedio de los vecinos a escuelas, hospitales, espacios verdes, centros comerciales, bocas de subte, estaciones de trenes, autopistas y avenidas.

Chacarita aparece ahí como el mejor lugar para vivir, aunque si se descuenta su cercanía al cementerio (que califica como espacio verde), entonces Colegiales toma la delantera, seguido por San Nicolás, Villa Ortúzar y Belgrano.

Villa Real, Villa Riachuelo y Versalles son los peores barrios del ranking, y otra vez aparece la curiosa diferencia cuando miramos los precios, porque los departamentos más baratos se consiguen en Villa Lugano y Parque Avellaneda (1.021 y 1.023 dólares por metro cuadrado, respectivamente).

Sin embargo, los barrios donde más distorsión parece haber no están en los extremos. Balvanera está sexto en calidad de vida, pero hay 27 barrios más caros. Paternal está 13º, pero en el ranking de precios ocupa el lugar número 33.

Por el contrario, entre los barrios más sobrevalorados están Saavedra y Villa Devoto; el primero de ellos es el décimo más caro, pero está 34º en calidad de vida, mientras que el barrio que limita con San Martín está 38º en el ranking de calidad, pero 14º en el de precios. Puesto en castellano, Balvanera y Paternal son barrios que están muy baratos, mientras que en Saavedra y Villa Devoto parecen estar los precios inflados.

Para estudiar por qué existían estas diferencias, en una segunda parte del trabajo, los investigadores del CEDLAS decidieron hacer un relevamiento propio y preguntarles directamente a los vecinos de Palermo, San Cristóbal, Caballito y Avellaneda (este último, para tener una comparación con el GBA) cuan satisfechos estaban con la calidad de vida de sus barrios, pero también indagaron sobre un amplio conjunto de variables que, a priori, se suponía que podían influir en la calidad de vida, yendo desde el ejercicio de la prostitución y la venta de drogas en las calles hasta la presencia de hospitales y escuelas, pasando por la congestión del tráfico, la contaminación visual y auditiva, el estado de calles y veredas, la performance de la policía y los niveles percibidos de seguridad, entre otras.

Caballito, y no Palermo, se alzó con el primer lugar en el ranking (dentro de los cuatro barrios analizados). San Cristóbal terminó último.

El estado de las veredas, la presencia de actividades culturales y de recreación, la calidad y disponibilidad de espacios verdes, la seguridad durante el día y la ausencia de polución, ruidos molestos y gente pidiendo por las calles son todas variables que afectan significativamente la calidad de vida del barrio, según los propios vecinos.

Contrariamente a lo que muchos pueden pensar, la presencia de animales sueltos, el ejercicio de la prostitución, la escasez de comercios, la forestación de las veredas, la recolección de residuos, el acceso al transporte público y la iluminación de las calles son variables que no afectan la percepción de los vecinos sobre la calidad de vida en su barrio.

Pero la sorpresa mayor es que de todas las variables analizadas, la que impacta de manera más potente en la calidad de vida de un barrio es la calidad de los vecinos que te tocan en suerte. Esto explicaría por qué la gente no valora tanto la cercanía a escuelas, hospitales, comercios, espacios verdes, centros de salud y medios de transporte

Colegiales puede tener mejor calidad de vida, pero la gente prefiere pagar más por vivir en Palermo o Recoleta, porque esos barrios parecen garantizarle el acceso a mejores vecinos.

La distorsión entre el precio de los departamentos en algunos barrios y la calidad de los servicios obedece entonces a la presión de la gente por segregarse. Las personas de más altos ingresos demandan propiedades en barrios donde habitan vecinos de similares características, y de este modo hacen que suban fuertemente los precios de las propiedades, lo que garantiza que quienes no están en un mismo nivel no puedan ingresar en el barrio.

Este resultado puede ser una novedad empírica, pero no hace otra cosa que corroborar la hipótesis teórica que le valió a Thomas Schelling el Premio Nobel de Economía en 2005: la gente no sólo se autosegrega, sino que, incluso, está dispuesta a pagar para hacerlo, lo que muestra su gusto por la discriminación.

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Cuál es el mejor barrio para vivir en Buenos Aires?

tiempo de lectura: 4 min